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THE UNIT METHOD 



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CONSTRUCTION 




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Construction 
REINFORCED 

CONCRETE 
BUILDINGS 



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F BIL/T 

» METHODS PATENTED US 
\\h FORHICN COUNTRIES 



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Unit Construction 

ENGINEERS AND CONTRACTORS. 



ST. LOUIS 

New York Chicago Houston Montreal Mexico City 
San Francisco: Van Sant-Houghton Co., Representatives 



Cable Address: I nico, St. Louis; A. B. C. and Western Union Codes 




NATIONAL LEAD CO., St !><>ui^ Work* Oxide Building I ait Construction Co., Engineer*; 

St Lout> I nit c onsi ruction < <». < onlraclor I ' building i* Ktorie* high, 100x122 ft. 

Floor loaf »f iwo lo*<r floor* an iOU pound> to square foot l pp^r floors 2.'>0 pounds 



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HE world has progressed very slowly in 
devising new methods of building construction. 



Foremost in the developments of the past century 
are the adoption of steel skeleton construction in 
the so-called skyscrapers and the readoption of 
the ancient use of concrete in combination with 
steel reinforcing, which has produced remarkable 
improvements over ancient methods. 



In spite of this advance, the world at large still 
uses the old method of depositing semi-liquid con- 
crete in the wooden shell of the structure (subject 
to all the uncertainty and inaccuracy of this pro- 
cess). Some years ago it occurred to us that the 
modern ideas of factory-built precision and cer- 
tainty could be applied to reinforced concrete 
methods, and 4t Unit-Bilt" construction is the result 
of this development. 



Unit construction is a patented method of as- 
sembling materials, and erecting reinforced con- 
crete buildings. It differs from the ordinary 
method of reinforced concrete construction in that 
all concrete is cast in forms on the ground, in the 



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THE UNIT METHOD OF CONSTRUCTION 



shape of individual units, which are seasoned and 
then assembled in place in the building as pro- 
vided for in the design. 



There is no difference in the materials used 
the difference being only in the application of 
Unit Construction methods. 



It has been clearly demonstrated that this dif- 
ference in method produces many structural 
advantages, and also adds to the excellent appear- 
ance of the completed building. 



These advantages may be briefly stated as 



follows : 



(1) Ease and completeness of inspection 
of every part of the structure during 
the entire process of casting and erec- 
tion. 

(2) Certainty of accurate results, because 
the work is at all times open to view. 

(3) Simplicity of design. 



(4) Uniform quality of concrete 



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P a _ e Six 



THE UNIT METHOD OF CONSTRUCTION 



(5) Shrinkage stresses reduced to a mini 



mum. 



(6) Joints at predetermined locations re- 
gardless of daily progress of work. 



(7) Reinforcement in the exact position 
intended by the Designing Engineer. 



(8) Maximum strength because of uni- 
form quality. 

(9) Greater speed of erection is obtained 
because of the fact that the entire 
work can be organized in advance. 

(10) Excellent appearance of finished build- 
ing. 



An examination of the illustration on page 6 
gives an example of a casting yard with work in 
progress, and shows how easy it is to inspect each 
unit as it is being cast. As this work is done on 
the ground, it is accessible and under supervision 
of competent superintendents. Under such close 
inspection there is practically no opportunity for 
sawdust, pieces of wood, or other foreign matter 
to remain in the forms. 



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Page Eight 



THE UNIT METHOD OF CONSTRUCTION 



In addition, if inspection shows that there is 
any reason to question the quality or strength of 
a unit, it is easy to make an individual test, thus 
making certain that all concrete which becomes 
part of the structure is above the standard in 
strength and appearance. 



Every characteristic feature of design used in 
the "Unit-Bilt" system has been developed under 
laboratory tests until its strength has been proven 
beyond question. 



The steel reinforcing is locked in position in 
the form, assuring that it will stay in the exact 
place called for in the design. 






As every unit is allowed to "season" before 
erection, the concrete has shrunk before the unit 
becomes a part of the completed structure. In 
this way shrinkage stresses in a unit building are 
almost entirely eliminated. 



In designing "Unit-Bilt" structures, all joints 
are at predetermined places and of maximum 
strength. Under ordinary methods of reinforced 
concrete construction, the location of joints is not 



Page Nine 






Accuracy, strength and perfect workmanship 

of all joint- i- certain 



Illustrating the placing of columns and a mbling of 

"skeleton" in "Unit-Bill" structures 




Page Ten 



"I nit-BUr Methods insure the accuracy of steel skeleton construction 



THE UNIT METHOD OF CONSTRUCTION 



under the control of the Designing Engineer, but 
is subject to weather conditions and the daily pro- 
gress of the work. 



It is apparent that "Unit-BUt" methods remove 
the objections often cited against reinforced con- 
crete construction by insuring fullest inspection, 



greatest accuracy and by eliminating uncertainty, 



thereby securing the maximum strength for the 



structure. 



The attractive ornamentation and surface 
finishes obtained by unit methods are shown in 
several illustrations. 



The ease with which unit work is organized 
in advance insures rapid construction without 
sacrificing the quality of workmanship or the 
strength of the structure. Casting of units may 
commence when excavation is started so that units 
may be set as soon as the foundation is complete. 
As there is no centering to remove, the first story 
of the building is ready for occupancy as soon as 
the floor of the second story has been set. 



The practical value of unit construction is 
proven by the forty-two buildings completed by 



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THE UNIT METHOD OF CONSTRUCTION 



these methods at this time, May, 1913; many of 
these have been in satisfactory service for several 
years. These buildings have cost no more than 
ordinary concrete structures and have many ad- 
vantages over such buildings. 



A glance at page 29 shows graphically the 
growth of "Unit-Bilt" construction, the complete 
and rapid success of which must be credited to the 
simple, accurate and certain methods used, and to 
our organization, developed by years of varied 
experience as contracting engineers for extensive 
undertakings in reinforced concrete construction. 
Our organization is one of international reputa- 
tion, and is now handling large contracts for 
prominent corporations in the United States, 
Canada, and Mexico, including such work as via- 
ducts, roundhouses, grain elevators, warehouses, 
electric railway car-barns, complete industrial 
and hydro-electric plants. We are prepared to 
complete undertakings of magnitude upon the 
most favorable terms consistent with modern 
engineering and contracting practice. 



Paare Thirteen 




USe ABC CODE (4 TH EOlTlON ) 



LOUIS MO 
GRANITE CJTY, ILL 

N E A t . R H 
MILWAUKEE WIS 



BALTIMORE MD. 
CHICAGO. ILL 
NEW ORLEANS. LA 
PHILADELPHIA PA 



GRANITE CITY STEEL WORKS 




March 15, 1913. 



Unit Construction Company, 

801 Liggett Building, 



St. Louie, Mo* 



Gent 1 omen: 



In reference to the n UUIT BILT" Warehouse 



which you constructed for us about a year ago we wish 
to advise that this building is satisfactory in every 
respect, and feel satisfied that your methods of con- 
crete construction offer the best means of securing 
the highest class of reinforced concrete structure at 
a reasonable cost. 

The building as constructed by you is absolutely 
fire-proof, and with your special arrangement of Bky- 
lights has made it very satisfactory for the assorting 
of our tin plate and the storing of same. 

Everyone who has inspected this building has com- 
mented on its excellent appearanoe and also its splendid 
lighting arrangement, and we hope in the future, as our 
various plants grow, that you will be in a position to 
construct them for us. 

Very truly yours, 
ryiOUAL EH 

'Vice. 



GWB 




^resident and Manager 

Steel Department. 



Page Fourteen 



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T^XTERIOR and 
-*— -^ buildings const 
for NATIONAL LI 

We have built for th 
tngs of Unit Constri 
floor area of 306,700 

The strength essem 
denced by the heavy 
pher brackets in the 
in small cut at right 



2 \teen 




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; rior views of various 
r ed by Unit methods 
COMPANY. 

Company eleven build- 
|l n, comprising a total 
are feet. 

in this work is evi- 
ds carried on the tel- 
rroding house, shown 
vis page. 





Page Seventeen 




Elevator of HIGHLAND MILLING ( OMPANY, Highland, 111. 

50,000 bushels capacity ' I nit-Bill" 



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Page Twenty-One 




This Building is the Corroding Building, Office and Employes* Welfare Department of NATIONAL LEAD & 
OIL COMPANY, New Kensington, Pa. The W. G. Wilkins Co., Engineers, Pittsburgh, Pa. 




Oston Avenue Warehouse, Chicago, UNIVERSAL PORTLAND CEMENT I <).. 

100 ft. by 200 ft. Cement Warehouse, Office and Stable. 



Pag e T w en t y - T w o 



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Fifteen-stall standard 92 ft. low type Roundhouse for A. T. & S. F. RAILWAY CO., Riverbank, Cal 

C. A. Morse, Chief Engineer of System. Erected under supervision of H. C. Philips 

and G. W. Harris, Chief Engineers of Coast Lines 




Interior view of SANTE FE ROUNDHOUSE, Riverbank, Cal. 



Page Twenty-Three 





Page Tw -Four 





The illustrations on these two pages show the "Unit-Bilt" structures of POSTEX 
COTTON MILLS COMPANY and the POST POWER COMPANY, of Post, 

Texas. 

The cotton mills comprise the following buildings: 

Main Mill, 521x133 ft., 25 ft. high. Bleachery, 222x50 ft. 

Warehouse, 200 x 102 ft., 17 ft. high. Bleachery Wings, 101 x 50 ft. 

Lint Cotton Bin, 101 x 52 ft, 17 ft. high. Cotton Gin, 61 x 25 ft; 



Cotton taken from the field leaves 
143 ft. by 84 ft. with spans of 42 ft. 
dustry and the city of Post. 



this mill as finished goods. Power-house is 
The power plant supplies power to this in- 



It is interesting to note that the girders, one of which is shown going into place 
in the middle illustration on page 24, are 42 ft. in length. 



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